Currently, the tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) has already colonized most of the Spanish Mediterranean coast, particularly in the regions of Catalonia, Valencia, and Southern Spain. It was found for the first time in the city of Sant Cugat del Vallés in 2004. It is thought that it entered Spain by way of France, where it had been previously been discovered in warehouses for used tires. To date, Catalonia is by far the region most impacted: of the 470 cities where the insect had been detected up to the year 2014, 372 of these were in Catalonia, or around 80%. Over the last 11 years, the tiger mosquito has vastly expanded in an accelerated manner, both within Catalonia and along other parts of the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

In Spain there are no populations of Aedes aegypti. However, increases in global mean temperature and globalization could favour the eventual appearance of Aedes aegypti in Spain, where between 1650 and 1850 it had once been abundant as a result of introductions associated with commerce and the transport of goods. The tiger mosquito arrived with the transport of goods, so it is important to consider that the yellow fever mosquito could arrive the same way.